Health Concerns and Cleanliness
Besides sanitation problems, many of Mongolia's traditional healthcare practices have not adapted to the changing circumstance of the modern city. Mongols are a nomadic people used to moving from one place to another in a pastoralist lifestyle. There are no observed health standards in Mongolia. You can observe breads, unwrapped and stacked on the bare wooden floor of a truck, being delivered to local groceries and restaurants. Meats and fish lay in the open exposed to the elements (human coughing & breath expelling airborne pathogens, also flies, roaches, etc.) inside groceries. In one of the largest markets in Ulaanbaatar used by the majority of citizens, I observed a meat counter person wipe his nose with the back of his hand prior to serving up an exposed handful of ground meat. Down an aisle, a patron spat on the floor amid the discarded cigarette butts while up the aisle, another customer used his thumb to blow his nose on the floor. In a very nice looking restaurant, the large white platters used to hold the plates were stained with grease and other unknown matter. Here, a patron coughed and spat the contents on the floor, which is apparently acceptable in a pastoralist life style.